Modern Industrial. Microbiology and Biotechnology. Nduka Okafor. Department of Biological Sciences. Clemson University, Clemson. South Carolina. USA. Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. FULL ACCESS. Full Access: DownloadPDF MB Read online. The field of industrial. PDF | On Feb 15, , Sandeep Tiwari and others published Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology.
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Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology pdf. This book is directed towards undergraduates and beginning graduate students in microbiology, food science and chemical engineering. With all these modern science and technology, microbiology is also improving. Metabolite production period, and Phase V onward Biotechnology period.
The microorganisms utilized may be native isolates, laboratory-selected mutants or microbes that have been genetically modified using recombinant DNA methods.
Metagenomics, the study of all of the genetic material in an environmental sample, is being used to screen for microbes with potentially useful industrial properties. In some cases the organisms have been developed using synthetic biology, the design of new biological systems or the re-design of existing systems..
Areas of industrial microbiology include discovery of new organisms and pathways, such as antimicrobial drugs. For instance, most antibiotics come from microbial fermentations involving a group of organisms called actinomycetes.
Other organisms such as yeasts are used in baking, in the production of alcoholic beverages, and in biofuel production. For example, the sweetener aspartame is derived from microbially produced amino acids.
[PDF] Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology Full Colection
Industrial microbiologists may also be responsible for the bioremediation of air, soil, and water contamination. Industrial microbiologists may also deal with products associated with the food, dairy, and consumer products industries, along with the prevention or deterioration of processed or manufactured goods, and with waste disposal systems. Quality assurance for the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries is a large area, along with the health of animals used in testing products.
When choosing a career in industrial microbiology or biotechnology, you should be prepared to embrace a multidisciplinary science. Very rarely will challenges be limited to just one area, but rather will require investigation of several aspects of a process or production problem.
Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology
In such circumstances, you will often need skills and expertise in additional fields such as molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, and biostatistics. Synthetic biology is an excellent example of the need for a wide ranging background in many areas of science and engineering. Using traditional genetics or recombinant DNA techniques, the microorganisms can be modified to improve the yield or action of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.
New research directions are aimed at discovering microbial metabolites with pharmacological activities useful in the treatment of hypertension, obesity, coronary heart disease, cancer, and inflammation.
Recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of vaccines that offer protection without risk of infection e. Industrial microbiologists are actively involved in the development of these new vaccines. This evidence leads us to believe that the technological process used by these civilizations allowed the large-scale production of wine starting around BC Borneman et al.
The Egyptians, who already used yeast to brew beer, began to employ this microorganism to make bread.
Samples were found in different archeological sites dating to — BC Samuel, The establishment and dissemination of fermentation practices throughout Asia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Old World are traits of the empirical domestication of yeasts Sicard and Legras, , which later stimulated the interest of Louis Pasteur in explaining the true cause of fermentation Pasteur, Evidence suggests that in , Pasteur was approached by a beetroot-based alcohol producer from the Lille agricultural-industrial region, who faced production problems.
Thus began the pioneering studies of Pasteur on lactic acid and alcoholic fermentations Gal, He then became an admirer of the microscopic universe, describing the association of microorganisms with diseases and proposing vaccination methods such as used against anthrax and human rabies Pasteur, ; Plotkin and Plotkin, His studies also provided support for the establishment of microbiology as a science, which had as its initial interest the sanitary control of diseases.
Technological Microbiology, however, started to draw the attention of the market when products originating from microbial activity began to be required on an industrial scale. This occurred with the glycerol demand for the manufacture of explosives during World War I Wang et al. However, Technological Microbiology is considered to have begun in the s, following a decision made by the United States Supreme Court that allowed the patenting of a Pseudomonas putida variant that is effective in the organic digestion of compounds found in crude oil spills Robinson and Medlock, The patent for a genetically modified microorganism, requested by Ananda Chakrabarty, contributed to a revolution in biotechnology that resulted in the issuance of thousands of patents, the founding of hundreds of new companies, and the development of thousands of bioengineering and food plants Holloway, A fundamental understanding of how a cell works has come through the study of microorganisms.
Looking for an Exciting Career?
But microbiology also is an applied science, helping agriculture, health and medicine and maintenance of the environment, as well as the biotechnology industry.
Microbiologists study microbes at the level of the community ecology and epidemiology , at the level of the cell cell biology and physiology and at the level of proteins and genes molecular biology.
Microorganisms are extremely important in our everyday lives. Some are responsible for a significant proportion of the diseases affecting not only humans, but also plants and animals, while others are vitally important in the maintenance and modification of our environment.
Still others play an essential role in industry, where their unique properties have been harnessed in the production of food, beverages and antibiotics.
Scientists also have learned how to exploit microorganisms in the field of molecular biology, which makes an enormous impact both industrially and medically.
Because microbiology, by definition, studies organisms not visible to the naked eye, we can consider lateth-century Dutch scientist Antony van Leeuwenhoek the father of the discipline.
Leeuwenhoek was the first person to describe tiny cells and bacteria, and he invented new methods for grinding and polishing microscope lenses that allowed for curvatures providing magnifications of up to diameters, the best available lenses at that time. But while van Leeuwenhoek is cited as the first microbiologist, the first recorded microbiological observation — the fruiting bodies of molds — was made earlier, in , by English physicist Robert Hooke.Still others play an essential role in industry, where their unique properties have been harnessed in the production of food, beverages and antibiotics.
Fermentation is the process of converting biological materials with the help of microorganisms or by the addition of enzymes. Specialized enzymes can make the gluten of bread retain naturally-occurring gases that would otherwise disappear.
Enantioselective produced lactones are highly-prized intermediate compounds in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. However, the costs of physico-chemical treatments being particularly high, alternative systems for the treatment of organic matter are nowadays increasingly the focus of research.
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